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Transdisciplinary aspect of biochemistry of human body
(How body manages its chemical elements)

Introduction
Research of chemical elements in the framework of natural sciences allowed finding out a lot about their structure, properties and interactions. However until now there are no answers to the questions — why are the same chemical elements included in the composition of organic and inorganic matter? How does the body distribute the roles of various chemical substances and manages their behaviour, if it itself is a combination of chemical elements?
The authors of the article are attempting to answer to these and other questions, using transdisciplinary conception and methodology.

Body and chemical elements
Chemical elements constitute the basis of human body. Out of 110 chemical elements of periodic table, 81 elements were already found in human body. However, chemical elements in it are represented in different quantities. So, for example, 12 chemical elements constitute nearly 99% of all of its chemical composition. That is why they are called macroelements. Basically, a human body is made up of them. Macroelements include carbon (C), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), sulfur (S), phosphorus (P), fluorine (F), and chlorine (Cl).
15 chemical elements are present in the body in very little amounts. Due to that they were called microelements. They include iron (Fe), iodine (I), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), vanadium (V), arsenic (As), cobalt (Co), chrome (Cr), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), silicon (Si), lithium (Li), selenium (Se) and others. Microelements are usually included in the composition of ferments and hormones of the body. That is why their significance for the vital activity of the body is so immense that they are called vitally important elements. The role of other chemical elements is continuing to be researched by scientists.
When studying the properties of chemical elements, included in a body’s composition, one should pay attention to one interest peculiarity. The same chemical element usually plays different roles and conducts various functions. For example, pure oxygen (O) represents gas. Its molecules connect with erythrocytes’ hemoglobin and transport themselves into tissues and cells that use it in its pure state for breathing. However in composition of chemical substances, oxygen becomes a necessary element for vitally important for the body compounds, such as water, proteins, carbohydrates [2]. In turn substances, containing oxygen and other chemical elements of the body could be «managing», «accompanying managing», «managed» and «storing information».
Those «managing» substances include cells of tissues of various organs. Those «storing information» include nucleosides of molecules DNA and RNA.
This unusual «transdisciplinary» classification of chemical elements allows asking a question — who and how determines the role of chemical elements in the body, as well as distributes various functions among them?
As a rule, the majority of scientists prefer to answer this question by stating that «the body itself» does it. But the body itself is a combination of chemical elements and their compounds! Therefore, chemical elements in some way have received an opportunity to conduct self-management in a certain organ or a system, and also in the framework of the whole body? What are the reasons for self-management?

How «self-management» could be studied
From Transdisciplinary‑4 point of view a human being is a fragment of orderly medium of surrounding world. From this definition, human body does not force out Archimedean body from a bath of water. It means that a human being has its own space, which is a fragment of surrounding world. Man’s space also has resemblance of an order, present in orderly medium of surrounding world. Therefore it would be a mistake to suppose that behaviour of chemical elements in a human body is predetermined by order present in his space. In other words his actual space manages chemical elements in the body.
This conclusion would look sounder if we look at the peculiarity of atom construction. Famous populist of physics P. Devis in this way talks about atoms: «By studying atoms, we find that they represent an empty space. The smallest nucleus takes only one trillionth (10–12) of atom’s volume. All other space is taken by a cloud of ephemeral electrons, situated ‘neither here nor there’, — tiny islands of hard substance in the ocean of emptiness!» [2].
In physics empty space is associated with physical vacuum. Researches of the physical vacuum state that it has potency (hidden power) whose energy in certain conditions produces elementary particles [3]. The transdisciplinary point of view allows to clarify and add to these physical notions. So, for example, the order that predetermines Unity of the body, is realized in its space as a specific geometrical structure, which divides vacuum potency into portions. Each of these portions will have a corresponding elementary particle, a chemical element, and intensity of their interaction. In turn, the same order, realized in time and information, determines the role and function of transformation of this potency, played by elements, particles and substances.
If man’s space is a repository of its chemical elements and particles, then does it finish by the body’s surface? Or does it continue in a volume of body smells that wrap around it? Or does it increase to the extended arm or an exhalation? In science this problem obtained the name of a «paradox of system research». The essence of the paradox is the following — «for correct selection of self-organising structure, we should know condition and reasons for self-organisation. To understand those conditions and reasons we should select self-organising system as a necessary moment of their theoretical study» [4]. Transdisciplinary approach allows to remove internal contraction of this paradox. For this «self-organising system» (a human being) is selected in the surrounding medium, like space having real sizes. In turn, transdisciplinary models of time and information allow to find and found «conditions and reasons» of self-organisation.
The actual reality of transdisciplinary image allows every human to «hug» its space. It is sufficient to spread your arms as wide as possible and with fingertips to «catch» the external surface of the imagin­ed sphere. Simply saying, human’s space repre­sents a sphere, whose internal environment is ordered in some way. Space potency is represented by chemical elements and substances, as well as by physical fields and chemical interactions. Transformation of this potency in time looks like the orderly behaviour of chemical elements that predetermines the body development.
How is human’s space initially created? Why does to possess potency, realization of which forces chemical elements to purposefully move? The answers to these questions require special explanation in our further articles. However, that minimum that could be understood allows to draw out interesting ideas and to solve a number of complex practical problems.

Circulation of one’s own chemical elements
An idea of transdisciplinarity‑4 to limit an object of study by boundaries of its own space, possessing its individual potency, allowed us to make a hypothesis about the presence in the body of its own chemical elements.
Own chemical elements (OCE) are elements that participate in building of the body, and who provide for its vital activity. Chemical elements become «one’s own» after the body distributes «external» complex chemical substance into its simple components or basic elements and determines that these elements’ potency corresponds to a potency of its space. For such «initial processing of external substance», body uses systems of breathing, digestion, and genital system. If a potency of these simple substances or initial elements does not correspond to a potency of body’s space, then they would be utilized by its immune system.
From transdisciplinary point of view the terms «participation in body building» and «provision of body’s vital activity» are looked at as a general process of transformation of initial potency OCE, consisting of completed physiological cycles. This process could be compared with a process of teaching a child at school. Moving from grade to grade, chemical elements store experience (potency) and obtain ability to participate in more complex and responsible physiological processes of the body, materially providing for its development. The role of a teacher is played by body’s space. Its potency is a norm, which is compared to initial and final potency of each OCE after the fulfillment of each physiological cycle.
The process, after which OCE increase the size of their initial potency up to its maximally possible, obtained the name «circulation of one’s own chemical elements». OCE potency increase is conducted discretely. Discretion is determined by an order that predisposes the unity of body’s space. According to this order, the process of circulation has eight periods. In each of these periods the potency of OCE is characterized by according to the indication. This circumstance has a significant meaning for solving problems, solved by the body in a process of OCE circulation.

Verticals and horizontals of OCE circulation
In the process of circulation two major problems are being solved. «Vertical», which consists of concordance of the sum of individual OCE potencies with the potency of body space in each period of circulation; and «horizontal», which determines the roles to be played in OCE body of one kind.
The order that lies in foundation of circulation in solving «vertical» problem plays the role of a program of directed physiological development of the body. According to this program, the size of space potency, provided for each period of circulation, determines:
the required number of OCE,
their predisposition to participation in physiological processes of a strictly determined direction,
placement of realization of this predisposition in the body’s space.
The transdisciplinary interpretation of physiological development program allows to formulate clearly its goal. The program goal (in this case a program of physiological development of a human being) is transformation of OCE potency and its direction from the first indicator, the basis of which is formed by chemical elements of DNA of an impregnated egg, up to the eighth indicator, the basis of which is formed by chemical elements DNA of sexual cells of a mature person.
We could suppose that achieving the goal of the physiological development program is helped by unification of OCE in a framework of a certain natural organisation, which obtained the name «unified functional ensemble» of the body. The goals of transformation of potency of each chemical element are derivative from the goal of functional ensemble of OCE of the body. In other words, whatever the goal of specific chemical element in the body is, no matter in what area of body space it participates in physiological processes, its behaviour and interaction will directly or indirectly promote achievement of major goal — to prepare the body to a beginning of formation of molecules DNA of one’s own sexual cells and to provide their constant formation. For natural objects that don’t have sexual cells the major goals of functional ensemble would be preparation of this object to reproduction, such as division.
Solving the «vertical» problem in many ways promotes solving the «horizontal» problem. To understand how a body solves the «horizontal» problem, we shall look at the essence of OCE circulation mechanism.
«An external substance, getting into the body with food, water, air and as foreign sexual cells and hormones, already has certain potency magnitude which allows to attribute it to one of corresponding indicators. From the «external» substance in digestive system, breathing system, and in manhood, and in genital system, the body selects initial chemical elements and substances, not only corresponding to its potency, but also having the necessary indicator. For example, a human body virtually doesn’t use mineral calcium (Ca) in physiological processes and for building cells and tissues. However actively is used calcium (Ca) that went through circulation in plants and animals [5].
Such «inventiveness» of the body towards «external substance is explained by the fact that it is an «open system». Any open system should participate in an equal substance exchange and energy with surrounding environment. In other words, in the process of vital activity the body should perform two necessary actions. Firstly, to obtain chemical elements that have already transformed their potency, by playing the role of OCE of other open systems (objects) in nature; and secondly, to transform potency of these elements (to change their indicator) and to «share» them with the surrounding environment.
For performing this obligation body’s OCE are divided into two groups. The first group consists of chemical elements that, after going through a number of physiological cycles and by achieving a potency of certain indicators, leave the body. These chemical elements become the planet’s OCE and are used by it for the provision of process of its vital activity.
The second group consists of OCE that never leave the body. Their role is very important for the actual body. By constantly participating in physiological cycles, they store in themselves maximally possible magnitude of OCE potency. OCE which don’t leave the body, are also divided into two parts. One part tries to reach maximal potency in the framework of a specific indicator. In this case, the behaviour of these OCE corresponds to the behaviour of ferments and catalysts of chemical reactions. Even though these substances actively participate in chemical reactions, they are never included in the composition of final substance. This gives them an opportunity to support multiple cycles of overall circulation process of OCE in the body.
Another part of OCE which don’t leave the body, conduct «vertical» rise by increasing their potency from indicator to indicator. At the same time the substance that includes chemical elements each time obtains a higher indicator of overall hierarchy of chemical elements of the body. For example, in the first physiological cycle the chemical element will be included in the composition of chemical substance, looked at as a carrier of its own energy. In the second cycle the same chemical element will be included in the composition of protein of a cell membrane. In the third cycle this chemical element will be used in the composition of substances on which internal cell structures are built. In the fourth cycle the chemical element will be transferred to the composition of the substance of internal cell hormones and so forth.

Long life or short death
OCE that do not leave the body, store some potency, which is a signal for transferal of all functional ensemble of the body to a new period of its physiological development on to a new stage of development in general. But as soon as all indicating OCE obtain maximally possible magnitude of potency, the process of their circulation will stop and a body’s death takes place. The support for this is a well-known factor that in the ageing cells takes place the decrease in metabolism activity. This circumstance allows to make an important conclusion that the mechanism of OCE circulation is a major natural reason for the ageing and death of body cells and its body as a whole.
It is known that there are up to 200 various kinds of cells in the body [12]. Each kind of cells performs their functions and has various duration of life. By using transdisciplinary hypothesis about OCE circulation, an opportunity has appeared to prove that duration of cells life is predetermined by a function that they conduct in the body.
Absolute long-livers in the body are highly specialised cells (myocardial cells, cells of bone tissue, neurons and so on) [12]. The secret of their longevity is that in a process of their longevity they actively free themselves from OCE that have reached maximally possible magnitude of potency. The freeing takes place in a process of creation from such OCE intracellular hormones, ferments or other cells that are being used by the cell for conduction external functional interactions. For example, such cells, like neurons form substances that play the role of neuro hormones. In transforming nervous impulse, these neuro hormones leave the cell (synaptic bladder). Later some of them return into the cell (into synapse), performing the requirement of intracellular circulation of OCE. But their majority stays in external environment, continuing to conduct specific functions.
Cells of other kinds that perform functions leading to a waste of OCE is not that intensive, or does not take place at all. As a result these cells are much faster filled with OCE that in circulation process reach maximally possible magnitude of potency. The frequent change of such cells has an important significance for the body as a whole. As a result of their utilization the body partially satisfies its need in chemical elements for solving vertical and horizontal problems of OCE circulation.
The chemical elements of these cells are also used for performing an equal exchange of OCE with the surrounding environment. So, for example, from obsolete blood cells, gall is created in the liver, which is initially used for breaking up fats in the digestive system, and then leave the body with broken up products.
Such examples of «self-regulation» of chemical elements could be observed on any level of the body — from molecules to the whole body as such. And in every case the basis for «self-regulation» of biochemical processes is a process of transformation of OCE potency (OCE circulation), controlled by the body’s space potency. Each OCE conducts in the process of biochemical reaction an action, which corresponds to an indicator of its potency. The combination of these specific actions in the framework of unified functional ensemble of the body creates a vision of a clear effect of self-regulation of chemical elements.

Transdisciplinary table
of chemical elements
The description of OCE circulation allowed to understand the basis of self-regulation of chemical elements in a process of its physiological development. However not a less practical significance has an explanation of OCE behavior during body diseases, as well as understanding of the mechanism of metabolic disease.
To solve these problems, the transdisciplinary parametrical table of chemical elements was used.
In building this table the model of the same order that lies in the basis of transdisciplinary models of space, time and information, was used [7].
Chemical elements in the transdisciplinary table are placed according to increasing of atom weights, as in the existing periodic table. However, the transdisciplinary table divides them into two compact groups. Each cell in the table, on the one side, is a reflection of certain magnitude of space potency, and on the other side, corresponds to one of its eight indicators. For a better visibility each indicator has its own strictly determined colour. Each cell of the table requires its «material carrier» in the view of a specific chemical element. Belonging of a chemical element to a specific cell of the table gives it the properties, shown in the processes of the body vital activity.
The interaction of the two groups of chemical elements in the body are organized by a dipole principle. In other words, the first part of the day the major activity in the body is promoted by chemical elements of the first group. The chemical elements of the second group become active in the second part of the day. If overall state of human’s space corresponds to its individual norm, then activity and passivity of chemical elements of both groups, observed during the whole day, will be absolutely the same. In this case normal OCE circulation in the body takes place, and so does the complete metabolism. In this state a human being feels absolutely healthy. The would falls asleep easily and wakes up, easily performs tasks and quickly rebuilds its energy.
In real conditions, overall state of a person’s space rarely corresponds to norm. The influencing factors include low quality of foodstuffs, distortions of work and rest, physical and mental overstrain, and stresses. As a result various violations of activity and passivity of OCE take place for both groups. In one instance, the ele­ments of the first group obtain abnormal increase of their activity, which during its normal decrease does not reach the necessary norm of lower border. At the same time the elements of the second group have an abnormally lower activity, which during its normal increase cannot reach the required by norm, upper border. So some sort of imbalance of OCE activity occurs «by first type».
In other instance the elements of the second group obtain abnormally increased activity. The situation with abnormally active and decreased activity will be repeated in the same way, just to the contrary. This leads to the appearance of imbalance by «the second type». Due to the actions of chemical and physical laws, the simultaneous presence of imbalances of both types in one body is impossible. Therefore, the body of each human being has OCE imbalance of the first or the second type. This circumstance has a very important practical meaning because the actual type of imbalance predetermines specific kinds of diseases of a human being.
For example at imbalance of the first type in the body, the person would experience the increased activity of OCE of the first group. In order to conduct such reinforcement, the body requires a increasing number of atoms of elements of the first group, or to reinforce chemical activity in some of them. The required elements would be obtained by the body from food, water and air or «wash them out of its own organs and tissues. In this case specialists say that there is an over saturation of certain chemical elements in the body. At the same time take place a forced decrease of number or decrease of activity of elements of the second group or some of them. In order to reduce the number of atoms of chemical elements of the second group, the body either «refuses» their absorption, or brings them into «biologically inactive» state the chemical elements of their organs and systems. To make OCE biologically inactive means bringing them out from physiological process, to formulate various deposits, stones and so on.
Let’s justify this statement on the example of diseases, whose reasons for their appearance are not well researched. Such a disease may include a nephritic stone disease. Even though stones in kidneys have a complex chemical composition, they could be divided into phosphates and urates [8]. Referring back to a transdisciplinary parametrical table of chemical elements, we could observe that in the first type of imbalance into biologically inactive state become elements of the second group, including phosphorus and calcium. Therefore, a person with the first type of imbalance would be predisposed to the appearance of phosphate stones (with phosphorus participation). With the second type of imbalance the chemicals that become biologically inactive are the elements of the second group, with sulfur among them.
Another difficult treated disease is osteoporosis. With this disease calcium and phosphorus are washed away from the bone tissue. Bones become weak. The same with the previous example, by using the table, we could see that people with the second type of imbalance would be predisposed to osteoporosis.
Similar examples could be made with the diseases, connected with imbalance of microelements. For example, the stable lack of iodine in the body may mean that a person has the second type of imbalance. At the same time, the increased activity of iodine-containing hormones of thyroid gland may be an evidence of presence of the first type of imbalance in the body.
It is known that the so-called «managing» and «concomitant to management» body elements — hormones and ferments, as a rule, represent protein molecule, the central part of which includes the atoms of a specific chemical element. By determining which chemical element belongs to which group, the real opportunity appears to forecast the character of possible changes practically for every hormone and ferment in the body of a specific person.
After such a visible order of interaction of OCE in the body, an opportunity has appeared to correct existing notions about the principles of curing diseases and prophylactics of human health. Let’s look at a specific example. Specialists and patients are now certain that the more microelements they have in the body, the better it is. Let’s check this statement using the transdisciplinary parametrical table of chemical elements. Draw your attention to the fourth line in the table. It is composed of microelements. Now let’s make an experiment. A person with the second type of imbalance will be given vitamins consisting cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe) and let’s a forecast the person’s state of health.
We already know that the second type of imbalance requires increased activity and the increase of the number of these chemical elements. Therefore, the body will actively absorb them. However, due to saturation of the body with these elements, we will provoke an increase of magnitude of the imbalance of activity of chemical elements in it. In other words, the body would experience a consequent decrease of the activity of chemical elements of the first group, and an increase of activity of elements of the second group with all the negative consequences coming from it: diseases, complications, medicinal intoxications and so on.
However, if we do it differently, i. e. select vitamins with microelements that belong to the first group of the table — Vanadium (V), Chrome (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Zink (Zn), Iodine (I), then it will be a different picture. By increasing the number of atoms of chemical elements, which are passive in a given body, we would gradually increase their total activity. At the same time the pathological activity of elements of the second group would be decreasing. As a result the general state of the body would be normalizing.
Tables, similar to the transdisciplinary parametrical table of chemical elements could be conducted for viruses, microbes, bacteria, funguses, which are constantly present and periodically appear in a human body. The presence, numbers, kind of composition and activity of these microorganisms are direct reason of the current state of the body’s space. In other words the body utilizes their help for transferring part of OCE into an active or passive state. The fact that substances that are obtained in a vital activity process of these microorganisms are toxins for the body, are expenses of this help. So, existing practice of «struggle» with microorganisms often is a «struggle» not with causes for those diseases, but with the actual body.

Conclusion
In popularized literature we could find many examples of how scientists try to justify difficulties for solving problems of contemporary natural science. Some scientists talk about not being able ever to find an answer. Some try to explain difficulties of answers by the «young age of science» in general. It is difficult to understand which bases have underlain these statements. Most likely, these statements were born under personal unsuccessful attempts to understand the world around us. It could not be any other way! Because a phrase «observe and understand world around» for a common person and a scientist of specific discipline has a practically different meaning. A common person perceives surrounding world as a whole. A scientist can see only a disciplinary picture of studied reality that are drawn to him by disciplinary parameters and characteristics.
The authors of the article believe that removing such a difference in the perception and understanding the surrounding world would be promoted by the transdisciplinary scientific approach. Major predisposition of the transdisciplinary approach lies in creation on its base an image of Unity of studied reality and methodology of its research. From Transdisciplinarity‑4 point of view, Unity is peculiar to any natural object. This circumstance allows to use this image and this methodology for studying a human being. It has been shown, how with the help of transdisciplinary methodology appears new conceptual and strategic decision of the complex scientific problem — to understand and to explain the mechanism of self-regulation of chemical elements in a human body.
Resolving this problem allowed to look differently at a human being in general and to offer new explanation of reasons, predetermining activity of well-known biochemical processes in the body. So, for example, the idea of the presence in the body of one’s own chemical elements and the mechanism of their circulation allowed to answer the question — why does the body get old and dies, if it consists of «eternal» chemical elements? But from the «pessimistic» answer there is an optimistic consequence, which is the following. It is impossible to prolong maximally possible biological time of a human being. But it is possible to preserve healthy body, full of life and energy during all this period, by learning to manage the process of circulation of OCE. This is already a lot!
As a result, the insoluble problem of health preservation and long-living turned from a problem into a task, solving of which is possible by using methodology of disciplinary, interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches. In other words, the sooner serious researches on studying one’s own chemical elements and the mechanism of their circulation start, the quicker the society will be able to obtain effective «pills from ageing» and really acting «elixirs of life».

 В. С. Мокий , Т. А. Лукьянова
By V. Mokiy, T. Lukyanova

Literature:
1. Lehninger A. Principles of the Biochemistry, v.1-3, M.,1985.
2. Davies P. Superforce. The search for a grand unified theory of nature. A Touchstone Book published by Simon & Schuster Inc., New York
3. Rovinsky R., The Developing Universe. 2nd enlarged edition. Jerusalem, 2001. www.geocities.com/rovinskii
4. Sadovskiy V., Basics of the General System Theory. M.,1974.
5. Bragg P., Spine - the Key to Health. M., 1974.
6. A.Volozhin, K.Subbotin. Your Health is in Your Hands. Publishing house, Moscow. 1994.
7. Mokiy V. Basics of Transdisciplinarity. Naltchik, Republican Printing Plant, 2009/
8. Manual of the General Practitioner, 4th revised edition. M., BAYAN, 1993

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