Individual in history

Fundamental discoveries made by the representative of the Karachay-Balkar people Eneev Timur Magomedovich are considered high profile breakthroughs and key events in the history of space exploration, cosmogony and rocketry. His name is not widely known. Because of specific nature of his researches and studies, he remained "in the shadow" longer than other scientists engaged in this sphere did...

"THE NAME OF a research worker is revealed to the human history from scientific chronicles in cases of emergency only, when the humanity faces new global challenges", said Boris Rauschen-bach, RAS Academician, scientist and thinker, close friend to Timur Magometovich Eneev.

Indeed, all his life, starting from the very first scientific work he published at the age of 21, Timur Magomedovich Eneev is involved in solution of crucial problems having primary importance for humankind destinies.

Here are two facts

In 2001, the President of the Russian Academy of Sciences Nikolai Osipov and Sergey Shoygu, Minister of Emergency situations submitted an urgent report to President Vladimir Putin relat ing as follows the asteroids and comets hazard endangering our planet: "Bodies from space engender global disasters, negative consequences of which can be irreversible and fatal for the existence of civilization on the Earth. It is imperative to conduct continuous monitoring of outer space for timely detection and tracking dangerous celestial bodies of small and medium-class».

One of the possible types of observation system can be a regular space patrolling. Substantial suggestions on it were formulated by the academician T. M. Eneev in the report he read at the meeting of the RAS research team «Risk and Safety». If his research works on asteroid hazard and on methods of its prevention treat physical rescue of Earthlings, the response to the «Letter of the Ten» published by ten academics concerned about so-called «turn to clericalism» of the Russian society, is full of bewilderment about such a wrong, narrow and dull ideological position of his colleagues: «By itself, the life arranged on a purely rational basis, is very unstable formation. Nation and people are supported by a certain spiritual background. Once this foundation is destroyed, everything else, all the other civil institutions are to break down».

In fact, this article tells about the necessity of high spirituality of mankind without which the Earth will turn into a desert with no help of asteroids.

Only two as they are, these facts reveal the immense caliber of Eneev's proprium.

Discoveries made by Timur Eneev are undoubtedly key events in the history of astronautics, cosmogony and rocket technologies. Even waves of declared policy of openness, glasnost, could not get this name out of the shadow of secrecy, his name was not given enough prominence. The nature of his scientific work and his studies is the intrinsic factor to it. He remained top classified longer than any other research workers in this realm of science did.

Only a restricted circle of experts knows that Eneev is the author or co-author of a number of remarkable researches and discoveries, as for instance the new model of Solar system formation, the unique project «Phobos-Ground», new methods of biological molecules structure modeling, new approach to asteroid threat problem solving. Probably it is a matter of course. This is the realm of complex theoretical science. Squarely Eneev made many other discoveries in the field of accessible science: he is the leading researcher of teams, which developed and launched the first artificial satellites of the Earth, he was the first to solve the problem of the astronauts' safe return to the Earth, he calculated Moon-reaching and satellite-orbiting trajectories. Again, these breakthroughs remained known only by the same narrow circle of scientists. Put it differently, the name of the author of fundamental and paramount discoveries and achievements in the field of aeronautics and cosmogony is absolutely unknown to the public. For now, subjective factor somehow explains it.

Among other nuances, it appears that one of the reasons for a long and top «secrecy» is hidden in Eneev's character, and precisely, in consistent, unswerving exclusion of any forms of publicity from the life. He disaffects it all in absolute indifference to the glory. When I touch upon this subject hinting that sometimes it is worth nothing to call the fame, to make a light gesture of invitation, he rejects, «That's really what I call vanity of vanities and wind chasing», and smiles back.

«He will never tell you that he was the first in.», were unceasingly stressing Eneev's colleagues. With all due respect and love, they showed me one of colored original mini-albums, skillfully made in honor of Eneev's birthday by associates at Keldysh Institute for Applied Mathematics. Among others, there is a sketch made by one of the colleagues gifted for drawing, which shows Newton, Tsiolkovsky and Korolev inviting Timur Magomedovich to join them, but he refuses. «It could be the epigraph to his real scale, but it is impossible to reflect his exceptional modesty", were their comments.

Timur Magomedovich Eneev was born in 1924, in the city of Grozny, where his father Magomed Aliyevich was sent in mission from Nalchik. His father's doom was tragic: in 1928, in Rostov when he was appointed Deputy Chairman and Executive Secretary of the North-Caucasian Regional National Council, he passed away by committing suicide. The reason was the terror and violence spread over the country. Romantic and intellectual, he fully realized the ongoing irreversible transformations of great and beautiful ideas of the revolution into dictatorship of boor people. He understood the disastrous consequences that these metamorphoses would bring to the Balkars, his people, whose decent and independent future he aspired when joined the revolution. He left a note and shot at him — suffering was incompatible with life. His wife, Evgenia Petrovna, a strong-minded and intelligent woman, managed, by means of some miracle, to eloign little Timur and his sister Leila to Moscow.

In Moscow Timur finished secondary school and entered the Department of Mechanics and Mathematics of Moscow State University. A young man possessed by outer space since his childhood, he firmly knew what he would do in his future life and why he chose this specialty.

Timur wrote his first serious scientific work when he was a 3rd year student. The work was published in a closed academic periodical of the Committee № 2 under the Council of Ministers of the USSR, an institution engaged in missile technologies.

In 1948, Eneev graduated from the University and entered the postgraduate school of the Research Institute for Mechanics at Moscow State University. After graduating from it with success, he got a job at Steklov Institute for Mathematics under the USSR Academy of Science in the Department of Applied Mathematics led by Mstislav Keldysh. Later on, the Department was transformed into Keldysh Institute for Applied Mathematics under the USSR Academy of Sciences. Eneev works at this Institute up today, he is head of sector at the Department number 5.

We find an interesting fact in the article entitled «A Singular Point of Reference» and published in the weekly of the scientific community (№ 8, 2007), « It happened in 1948. By the end of a conference, Korolev came in. He was hurrying to listen to Eneev's report, but to his great chagrin, he found out that he was late: the report had been already made. They got acquainted this day». In 1948, Korolev was already a well-known person. He won fame as the author of the book «Rocket flight in stratosphere», he was at the head of a large Design Office, he spent years in prison on false charges, he saw his good name rehabilitated and to boot, he had an incredible shortage of time. If Korolev had interest in yesterday's student Eneev, it would have been logical to call him up to his office. I venture to suggest that Korolev wanted to have a stander-by view, to listen to Eneev extrinsically and to guess what else this young man possesses, except vigorous and powerful talent. Korolev saw Eneev's obsession with science, his spontaneity, inner independence, openness and probably smiled.

Goethe says in his «Faust», «You are equal to someone you understand». Perhaps, it is not a general rule, but in the case of great people, it is. Korolev immediately invites Eneev to join his research team. Later on, the academician acts as official opponent to Timur Magomedovich at the presentation of his doctoral thesis. Here is his evaluation: "Eneev's work comprises six doctoral theses. That is what I managed to count. But there are more of them».

Since that first encounter, they never separated. Firm lifelong bonds of friendship tied two men. Indeed, close contacts between the Department of Mechanics headed by M. Keldysh and the Department of Ballistics led by Korolev even more cemented this bromance.

In an interview Timur Magomedovich mentioned one episode:

On the eve of Gagarin's flight, Mstislav Keldysh calls Ohotsimskiy and myself, and says:

— Korolev asked you to come and see the flight program.

— What's wrong? We've not been warned — so everything is in order.

— I don't know. Sergey Pavlovich (Korolev) highly requested.

We arrived a bit confused. The fact was that, in themselves, ballistic tasks of Gagarin's flight were pretty simple to us, ballistic techies. We were used to deal with more subtle and incomparably difficult tasks. Everything was definitely calculated, adjusted and set. Deep down, there was not need of us. We asked the people what's was going on.

— Korolev is strongly agitated. The event is too dear to him. The level of responsibility is too high. He'll be at ease if you are around».

Timur Magomedovich remembers this case to illustrate how strong was the feeling of interconnection, unity and fraternity between the teams led by Korolev and Keldysh. But the episode also reveals the degree of personal confidence that Korolev had in Timur Magomedovich.

Here is another episode: "2.00 a. m. Phone rang. Korolev speaking:

— Timur, we have a problem. The pressure drops in the rocket. What should we do?

— How can I say now?

— You can. You are Eneev. You're mathematician".

What a high authority, what a confidence! "In various critical situations everyone was sure that he will find solution, that he can help", remembers Eneev's colleague Efimov G. B.

Eneev was a student when he met Mstislav Keldysh for the first time. One of his early works was sent to the academician for expert appraisal; the latter was so surprised to find new fundamental and unexpected ideas in the work that, giving high appreciation, he recommended it to be immediately published. After that, he invited Eneev to the newly created Department of Applied Mathematics at the Institute he headed. According to his colleagues, until the end of his life, Keldysh considered Eneev his favorite disciple, whom he believed, whom he protected and with whom he agreed on many contentious issues. When M. Keldysh published his famous «Selected Works», at his personal request, Eneev was named the executive editor of the publication. This fact reflects the degree of mutual understanding and affinity of souls two scientists had. In those years only Timur Magomedovich could edit Keldysh's works, remaining at peaks of Big Science and, if necessary, arguing with the author. This book contains numerous works written by them in collaboration: «Study on the dynamics of the flight to Mars and Venus», «The Definition of trajectories of the space craft «Mars-1», «On the accuracy of satellite trajectory prognostication" etc. It was a co-authorship of equals. Without shared labor, concerted solutions and combines ideas forthputting of Eneev's name would have been impossible, as it is absolutely impossible to put the name of a scientist, which talent, scientific and human decency could anyhow give rise to doubt.

In 2006, Timur Magomedovich was awarded Demi-dov prize for the contribution to the development of fundamentals of theoretical and applied astronautics. Our hero, who is, as we have said before, indifferent to all kind of honors, considers this reward the dearest one. Nowadays Demidov prize is the most prestigious Russian award in the field of pure science. This prize has a special value because it is awarded only on decision of colleagues — scientists and researches that are solely capable of competent and impartial evaluation of candidate's eminence in science and, at the same time, are able to appreciate his personal qualities and compliance of his scientific talents with human virtues. That is what makes the award of singular significance. While justifying Eneev's merits, preparing official documents, references and other bureaucratic files, his colleagues, besides emphasizing his contribution in science, were in every possible way expressing their deepest respect and admiration for his human qualities. Stating Eneev's outstanding contributions to such sciences as applied mathematics and mechanics, celestial mechanics and astronautics, Demidov Prize reflects the level of credibility of Eneev's personality over the scientific community.

It is appropriate to quote here few excerpts from conversations with Eneev's colleagues.

Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, professor, three times winner of the State and Lenin Prizes, Efraim Lazarevich Akim — one of the greatest scientists in the field of space ballistics, spacecraft navigation and planetology, said during the interview,

— I am one of Eneev's disciples. I was his graduate student and in my scientific life, this period is the most important and lucky. While being students, we knew at our department that Eneev was a great scientist. From the very beginning, ever since he was studying at the University, his name was enwreathed by the aura of exclusivity. I was surprised when I met him in person. Time was loud, people were loud, and we were young, therefore enthusiastic and impatient. There was nothing but deafening silence around him. This silence spoke louder than any loudspeaker. I still regret that he had not engaged in teaching activities, he did not have such an opportunity. He is a rare teacher. Even mediocre people were trying to reshape when there was an opportunity to be near with him. If not — the mediocre one had to leave.

«The soul must work day and night; night and day», this saying is about Eneev. In his case, it is not because the soul should do or cannot do otherwise, he was born that way. His thoughts are always vivid and for sure, are the strongest and the most beautiful thing of his nature.

Our country's achievements and our science's breakthroughs in the research of outer space, creation of missile and space technologies are closely and forever connected with the name of Timur Magomedovich Eneev. His merits are outstanding, huge and planetary by scale and effect. He is a great scientist and a bright, wonderful person».

Georgy Grechko, twice Hero of the Soviet Union, Chevalier of three Orders of Lenin, specialist in the field of studying of the Earth's atmosphere by space research methods, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, member of the International Academy of Astronautics, was emotional and could not conceal his admiration, «Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics is unique. Wonderful people have been working and are still working there. Among them were many prominent scientists, but Timur Magomedovich was a genius. It is not an exaggeration. He differed from the others by his singularity, and it was the singularity of genius. For example, we, astronauts, need to solve an important and urgent problem. Everyone joins to solve it, and everyone goes by standard path, but not Timur Magomedovich, he always finds completely unexpected ways. At first, it seems to be an impossible way, because he applied unexpected, out of the box mathematics, but after his solutions prove to be extremely valuable and reliable.

His discovery called «asterisk» will forever remain in the history of space exploration. When we started flights to Moon, we faced a very serious problem: sometimes it was possible to launch the missile from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, sometimes it was not. Already prepared, the launch happened to be possible with a small weight only, the thing we could not accept. Timur Magomedovich said, "We should not launch the missile directly from the Baikonur.

At first, we must put it into a circular orbit around the Earth, and then we can send it from this orbit towards Moon."Well, "he said" is too simple, it meant that he had calculated all details, estimated all probabilities and discerned the right solution. Today it is crystal clear that there is no other way, that this is the only right and simple solution, but at that time this idea did not dawn upon anyone but Eneev.

Mathematicians at this Institute are all familiar with the phrase "Timur-effect". Just a moment ago, Timur was here discussing some problem and now he vanished away. He is nowhere to be found. He disappeared this very instant, and in all of the sudden he shows up with a new solution, ingenious to abruptness, clear and sharp. We would be sitting there and marvel: why did not we guess? Still, what amazes me in him is the scope of his interests, which only increased with the years. Say, here I am — a ballistics techie. All my life I have been calculating flight trajectories to Moon, Mars, and Venus. All my life until retirement. Not in a conventional way, not like me, but he did it too. It was not enough for him and he plunged into the deepest questions of humanity: how did our solar system develop? Why are the planets just the way they are? Why are they on these orbits? Why a re they of this size? Why a re thei r satellites just like the way they are?

There are different theories and suppositions treating the development of the Solar system. Timur Magomedovich chooses among them the most close to him — crooked cloud and begins to set various speed and mass of its particles, to simulate the processes that had been ongoing for billions of years. Finally, he founds a cloud demonstrating on what initial conditions our solar system could appear and how it is now, with such planets in such orbits.

Another interesting question that captures Eneev's attention is the origin of the humanity. He gets down to Darwin's theory, he scrutinize it, calculates and agrees: yes, humanity could have evolved on Earth through natural selection. Nevertheless, the Earth is four billion years old, and sorting options to human nature would have needed immeasurable more time. If humankind really appeared through natural selection, the process of man's emerging from the animal world would have been longer than our system exists. That is impossible. Consequently, there was some interference, which accelerated the creation of man. Whatever you want to call it — God, aliens, fate — but Eneev's calculations proved that without intervention of a powerful, external force, mankind was not able to come into existence by mere Darwin theory.

We, techies, were always amazed: we urgently need, for example, a method, a mathematical solution, and we think he will spend a long time to calculate and to mull over the solution, but all done in a flash! Always dead on time, always efficiently. Timur Magomedovich was and remained an eminent mathematician, a person of keen intellect and of the most original ideation. I must say that humanity will be always grateful to Balkaria for its son.

V. Sazonov, deputy chief editor of the «Space Exploration» journal, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics was succinct to say, "It is a great luck, a great test and still a great pleasure to work with someone like Timur Magomedovich. The fact that he was the editor of our periodical for many years is a high honor to all employees, all authors and readers.

There are only few scientists on ballistics and mathematics of this magnitude in our country. According to experts, the first among them is Eneev. Everyone knows his sense of extreme responsibility, his scientific integrity; that is why a random, pseudo-scientific matter cannot find place in our journal — we almost get none of these kind.

His human and scientific prestige is so huge that I will not be able to put into words the respect, love and pride that he enjoys with his colleagues.

Selflessness and modesty of Timur Magometovich Eneev are legendary. He will never tell you that he carried out all the calculations for the first report on the artificial Earth's satellite he made in collaboration with Tikhonravov. This report was signed by two academicians Keldysh and Tikhonravov. Nothing is strange: perhaps, better-known, more symbolic personalities must sign such a revolutionary and, at the same time, fantastic and vital for the country and the whole humanity project. And that's it, but for the sake of justice I would emphasize: yes, Keldysh is considered theoretic of astronautics; but to my mind and in fact, with no less right, we can call Eneev the same".

M. Marov, Academician of Russian Academy of Sciences, laureate of Lenin Prize and State Prize, admitted at once that talking about Eneev makes him happy, "Eneev's scientific genius is reflected in many of his discoveries, but I wanted to tell about something else now. For me, Timur Magomedovich is an example and sample of absolutely uncompromising person, courageous in defending scientific truth, dignity of science and justice. I watched him in a variety of situations and he always remained true to himself; he always followed the voice of his conscience. I am convinced that his honesty, integrity helped to preserve the prestige of our Academy. For instance, in the 70s, Eneev made significant contribution to the fight against the project of northern rivers' rotation to the south, a project that, according to many scientists, threatened the ecology and lead to very serious environmental consequences. He also participated in a public campaign against the Lake Baikal pollution. Since the early 90s, Eneev was involved in the social movement in support of the spiritual revival of the society".

Georgy Efimov, a colleague of Timur Magometovich told, «Okhotsimsky was a great scientist; he was the author of fundamental works in the field of the dynamics of space flight etc. But his individuality was the exact opposite to Eneev's. He was very overbearing, closed man. It was hard to understand the real friendship that existed between them.

There are very complex relationships at the Academy of Science. As an example of absurdity, I can say that such a great scientist as Okhotsi-movsky was not elected academic for more than 20 years. Just was not elected, and that is all! Timur Magomedovich took his papers away and refused to participate in elections. He declared directly that he did not want to receive the academic title before Ohotsimovsky will have not. Only after the election of Ohotsimskiy, Eneev agreed to nominate his candidacy. The Academy elected him academician immediately and unanimously, because even in such an unpredictable structure everyone understands that Eneev is a special phenomenon. With his indifference to all ranks and titles, it seems this fact has nothing special. For him, undoubtedly, it means nothing, but as I see, it is an exceptional case in the history of Soviet science when a scientist displayed his personal position in such a firm way.

His Ph.D thesis presentation was made in closed-doors. I remember so well this day in 1951, when Timur Magomedovich, happy and young, was running towards me from the second floor of the old building of our University. By the way, his thesis was devoted to the study of cruise missiles optimal trajectories. Few years later, this work had a huge impact on creating long-range missiles «Burya» and «Buran». I want to emphasize, all the Eneev's ideas are fundamental. They are known to be fraught with lots of «side effects», I mean they give birth to new scientific schools and initiate new research on their practical application and technological use. In the field of astronautics, Eneev made a number of pioneering breakthroughs. Today, they have turned into a segregate sciences or branches of science.

We have many wonderful, great scientists in our institution. Timur Magomedovich is a special case. In all respects! It is clear that different characters can clash, different and challenging; but all love him.

One remembrance from the youth: I was going through the university and saw Timur Magomedovich standing with the famous academician Sedov. They were walking towards me immersed in lively debate. I heard Timur Magomedovich, at that time student, to say to the Academician:

— This problem can be and must be solved. All we need is "peacefulness". (There were resounding scientific fights between researchers at that time).

"Peacefulness" by Eneev is to listen to and to hear the others. He is surprised when he encounters those who are not able to do it. He met so many deaf people on his ways, but up to now, he is wondering as a child when he meets them again. Nevertheless, when it comes to business, he is «a knight without fear and without reproach». That is where Balkarian and Caucasian features come out, but only when it is a question of large, fundamentally important things. He takes no notice of what is small fry floating on the surface, empty and shallow. Here is a detail: very often in our field of science an issue, its size, its structures imply co-authorship, which is natural and inevitable. With Eneev's scruples and honesty, he really has to deal with true scientists. When a work is being published, the name «Eneev» is in the latter position, although it is clear to everybody that it should be placed first. I am disgusted; he smiles back and says, «In alphabetical order only» and then with a surprise: «Is it so important? »

In fact the entire way Eneev passed in science and major episodes of his spiritual biographies are reflected in the greeting card made by his colleagues, and it make sense to state it without reduction:

Dear Timur Magomedovich!

The Board, the Academic Council and entire Keldysh Institute for Applied Mathematics of Russian Academy of Sciences kindly congratulate you on your glorious 80th anniversary.

All your scientific work is inextricably linked to our institute: you were at its origins and are working in it for more than a half of century, since the day of its foundation. You are one of those who has defined the face of our world-renowned Institute for Applied Mathematics founded by unforgettable Ms-tislav Keldysh.

You started scientific activities in the field of dynamics of rockets and astronautics when you were studying at the Department of Mechanics and Mathematics of Moscow State University.

It is difficult to overlook the volume of your researches, approaches and solutions to new and important problems you have proposed. We hereby note some of the key results of your activities: the new approach and original method of optimization of missiles launch trajectories; the priority research on the theory of orbits of artificial satellites of the Earth and the method of these orbits calculation. These studies were published in 1957 in the famous issue of the «Successes of physical science» journal, appeared before the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite. This article displayed to the whole world the readiness of the Soviet Union to launch artificial celestial bodies, as it was realized in October 1957 for the first time in the world.

Let us note by the way that you, dear Timur Magomedovich, have directly participated in the historic launch of the first Soviet artificial satellite of the Earth.

You were the first to propose the method of uncontrolled «ballistic descent» of manned spacecrafts onto Earth. Calculations your staff and you carried out, have shown that such descent was possible and desirable! All Soviet manned spacecrafts projects used your method, beginning with the flight of Gagarin.

Priority approaches and study of the problem of precise spacecrafts' orbits and flight trajectories calculation based on measurement data also belong to you. You have proposed a new, now successfully practiced, method of space vehicles putting on trajectories reaching Moon and other planets with pre-breeding into circular orbit around the Earth.

In order to calculate the space missions with thrust-ers you have suggested the «method of conveying paths» to facilitate quick and accurate calculation of ballistic and energy-saving characteristics of such flights.

You have made a significant contribution to the theory of autonomous navigation.

In recent years, you lead a successful exploration of the asteroid hazard problem and methods to combat it. You conduct studies on reaching the small celestial bodies of the solar system, including with the use of thrusters. You own the development of conceptual design of relict matter delivery to Earth — soil samples of small celestial bodies (the project «Phobos-Ground»).

Your staff and you carried out original research on the problems of cosmogony and received amazingly beautiful results in the field of galaxies' evolution study.

You have developed a new model of the Solar system, taking into account the non-linear interactions, which explain many of the phenomena based on general assumptions and a single process, unmatched by number of interacting particles.

Segregate and important area of your own work and activities of your employees is a new method of large systems and processes calculation. The use of these techniques in molecular biology gave great results in RNA molecules structuring.

You are at the head of the research school «Mechanics and control of spacecraft motion. The function and evolution of complex natural and technical systems», which units dozens of employees of Keldysh Institute for Applied Mathematics, undergraduates and graduate students of Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology, Moscow State University.

It must be noted your fruitful social activities marked by clear-cut civil stand. We all remember your vigorous struggle against the project of the northern rivers stream reverse. You do not spare effort working as chief editor of the journal «Space Exploration».

Dear Timur Magomedovich! We are happy to work with you. We appreciate your principled approach to research as well as to social problems. We marvel at your erudition both in natural science and in humanitarian issues.

Motherland has highly appreciated the deeds of your life. You are Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences. You are Lenin Prize laureate; you are honored with many State awards.

The Russian Academy of Sciences has decorated you with the Gold Medal of Zander. By the decision of the International Astronomical Union, a minor planet of the Solar System was named after "Eneev".

There is however an award that Timur Magomedovich merited, but did not receive — the Nobel Prize. After the launch of the first artificial satellite, the Nobel Committee asked soviet government for the names of scientists who participated in this project in view to write them up to the reward. Khrushchev answered that the satellite was created by the entire soviet people, and did not mentioned any names.

«That was the level of secrecy and we had to refuse the Nobel Prize, and such were the times.», writes the Academician Boris Chertkov. Eneev was engaged in multistage rocket orientation control, the results of his work were used for the first artificial Earth satellite launching. He also solved the problem of satellite's orbit evolution moving into the upper atmosphere. Without these inventions, the satellite launch would be impossible.

According to official information published in the weekly of the scientific community «Poisk» (№ 8, 2007), Eneev's role in the creation of the first satellite can scarcely be overestimated: «In 1951, Eneev studied the general problem of selecting the optimal control of the composite rocket axis orientation. Later on, the obtained results formed basis of calculations for choosing a software control during injection of the Earth artificial satellite (EAS) into orbit. Together with colleagues, he examined the problem of the evolution of the EAS orbit moving in the upper atmosphere. Eneev was the first to create a simple and reliable method of estimating the lifetime of the satellite, requiring a minimum of computational effort in the analysis of a large number of orbits». All this studies were unprecedented. Eneev could have been a Nobel Laureate, if it had not been such a high level of secrecy, if it had been another times, another system.

Upon the unanimous recognition of colleagues, Gagarin's flight became possible only after the Eneev's work related to satellite braking in the atmosphere at its descent. Keldysh who was the first he told to about it, was at the outset a bit skeptical: «Braking in the atmosphere of the capsule with a man? It is dangerous. The overloads will be too high and it will be hard to protect the device from overheating. The temperature may be too high for a human body. Perhaps, this descent can be used to deliver scientific results in special containers back to the Earth".

Keldysh was inclined to seek a solution to the problem of human descent in the creation of a winged re-entry vehicle. However, Eneev argued that considering calculated temperatures and using the materials, which were available at the time, it would be possible to make an effective thermal casing capable to protect the human body from overheating. After consultation with medical staff, he concluded that astronauts would well tolerate the overloading. It is emphasized in the information about the activities of Eneev given on the website of the Russian Academy of Sciences:

"T. M. Eneev suggested using of the spacecraft ballistic descent from the EAS orbit on the Earth for the safe return of astronauts. Using this method, Yuri Gagarin's space flight ended in a successful landing. The method has proved that the maximum overload for such descent did not exceed ten times the value g, considering that five time overloads lasted less than one minute. Evaluations, also first, have been conducted by heating the body of re-entry vehicle by means of heat transfer to the wall in a turbulent boundary layer of high-speed air stream flowing around the vehicle"..

The report states that the Eneev's method of evaluation of landing points dispersal on earth permitted to analyze automatic and manned vehicles landing accuracy in a given area. The proposed version was so precise that scientists use it until now for launching and landing of spacecrafts and astronauts. Long-term experience proved the security and faultlessness of the method confirmed at all levels of space exploration.

The scope of Eneev's interests is so wide that it implies a deep exploration of different aspects of the problem, embracing interfaced fields of allied sciences. It sometimes needs to re-think all previously made, to keep a "great passion" toward research and to overcome the doubts. Specialization does not always mean narrowness and limitation; it is also a way to delve into the subject, to cover it from all angles. Eneev's experience confirms the following statement: love for one science give rise to the interest in others, even more allied.

Eneev's interest in molecular biology is obvious. This science studies basic properties and manifestations of life at the molecular level. Its major areas of study are structural and functional organization of the genetic apparatus of cells and the mechanism of realization of the genetic information. Within many years Eneev studied the structure of the living thing, not only because subjects and objects of this branch of science are extremely complex, but because they have direct impact to the future of humanity. Modeling the origin of the Solar System and other stellar systems, he was solving the riddle of the archebiosis on Earth. He accepts the hypothesis that our body is a living relict, a preserved form that conceals the whole history of the planet, as well as the hypothesis that life is a cosmic phenomenon considering that it exists on the outer body — the planet Earth. This information is stocked in our DNA, which contains about 1 billion base pairs of about 1m of length. A chain made from the DNA of all cells that a human possesses, will reach out through the entire Solar system.

English biochemist John Kendrew tried to express the size of the nucleic acid molecules, i. e. the DNA, and its significance in this analogy: «Imagine that we have increased the size of a man to the size of the United Kingdom. Thus, one of its cells will be about the same size as a factory building. There are large molecules inside the cells containing thousands of atoms, including molecules containing the DNA. So, even with such a large increase, a nucleic acid molecule will be thinner than electric wires». (John Kendrew. The Thread of Life — Мoscow, 1968, p.19).

The above comparison reflects, to some extent, the incredible complexity of identifying and structuring of the molecule called the «thread of life». Timur Magomedovich explores this "thread" in many of his works.

Back in the 70s, Eneev began to study the formation of large-scale structures in the universe using the method of direct computer simulation of the motion of large quantities of particles. He could show that a massive body flying by a disk-shaped cloud of particles, forms spiral structures that are typical for many galaxies. Developing O. Schmidt's ideas, Eneev studied the formation of planets, as the evolution of a cloud of particles orbiting a gravitating center and able to stick together. Using this model, simple in its basic assumptions, it occurred possible to reproduce not only the ratio between the masses and radii of Solar system planets, but also the direction of rotation of the planets around their own axis. Scientific interests, discoveries, solutions that emerge from Eneev's works are so versatile, that they are very difficult to grasp.

Nikolay Berdyaev, eminent Russian philosopher, suggested that only who is Universe himself is equal to bold challenge to cognize the Universe. Timur Magomedovich's personality confirms these words, and I confess that I was more concerned about and interested in the origins of the spiritual lineage «of this Universe». Even more, I was amazed at the coincidence of his human virtue with his scientific genius. Approaching his 90th anniversary, Timur Magomedovich surprises by the power of his mind and the craving for creativity. I believe, the Skies that he loves so much and so fully understands, will continue to protect him.

Рая Кучмезова
By Raya Kuchmezova


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О нас

«Золотая площадь». Международный журнал культурной и деловой жизни.
The Golden Plaza. International Magazine of Culture and Business.
Свидетельство о регистрации средств массовой информации:
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Учредитель: Индивидуальный предприниматель Эркенов Рашид Адамович.
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